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Where applicable, any barriers to entry within the Canadian trucking community were explained to separate those technologies which could likely be used to those that would likely never gain widespread acceptance due to operational barriers For heavy vehicles such as tractor-trailer combinations and buses, pressure drag is the dominant component due to the large surfaces facing the main flow direction and due to the large wake resulting from the bluntness of the back end of such vehicles.
Although friction drag occurs along the external surfaces of heavy vehicles, particularly along the sides and top of buses and trailers, its contribution to overall drag is small (10% or less) and is not a strong candidate for drag-reduction technologies.
The purpose of this study is to better understand what technologies or practices can be applied to highway tractor and trailer combinations and highway motor coach buses to reduce aerodynamic drag without negatively affecting the usefulness or profitability of the vehicles.
Additionally, it is of interest to determine how these devices may affect other vehicles and vulnerable road users in close proximity to the tractor trailers or buses.
However, it is clearly still more beneficial to reduce pressure drag, regardless of vehicle configuration.
In general, the authors attempted to explain each technology or product and present or calculate the expected potential reduction in drag coefficient for a typical highway vehicle.gadgets gae of 24 gain gain or loss gallon gallons gallons and cubic inches gallons in cubic yards gallons of water gallons per hour gallons per minute gambling game game board game matrix game of game of 24 game of twenty four game of twenty-four game of twentyfour game outcomes game schedule game twenty four games games schedule garage garage space garbage garbage bag garden garden area gardener gardening garfield gargoyles gas gas and oil gas milage gas mileage gasket gaskets gasoline gate gauge gauss gauss bonnet theorem gauss-jordan gaz gazebo gazebo side length gazillions gcd gcf gears geatest common factor gender discrimination genealogy general cubic general equation general form general quadratic general term generate generator geoboard geoboards geocaching geodesic geometer geometric geometric construction geometric definitions geometric mean geometric pattern geometric progression geometric progressions geometric proof geometric sequence geometric sequences geometric series geometric shapes geometric tree geometrical drawings geometrical solid geometrical solids geometrical terms geometrie geometrique geometris sequences geometry geometry circle geometry problem geometry problems georg cantor george dantzig george stigler geosphere ges grains de blé gift certificates girls girth given angle given constant given roots glass pebbles glasses glaze glb glide reflection globules gloves glycol gm goal goat goat problem goats god goesinta goesinta box gold goldbach golden cuboid golden mean golden ratio golden rectangle golden section golf golf 10 golf 11 golf 12 golf 13 golf 14 golf 15 golf 16 golf 17 golf 18 golf 20 golf 21 golf 22 golf 24 golf 28 golf 29 golf 32 golf 36 golf 4 golf 40 golf 5 golf 6 golf 6 over 7 rounds golf 60 golf 7 golf 8 golf 9 golf ball golf balls golf for 6 golf for 7 golf for 8 golf league golf league schedule golf league scheduling golf pairings golf pro golf schedule golf schedule fr 6 days golf scores golf tournament golf tournaments golf vacation golfers golfing golg 5 good question google googol googolplex gp grade grade 3 problem solving grade 4 curriculum grade 5 word problem grade 7 grade 9 algebra grade as a percent grade four curriculum grade of a hill grade of a road grade of the incline grade seven grades gradians gradient grads graeco-latin square grain grains of rice gram grams grams per square meter grams to percent grandfather grapes graph graph distortion graph in 3 dimensions graph in 3d graph of a line graph of a piecewise function graphic graphical analysis graphical method graphing graphing a function graphing a line graphing exponential functions graphing inequalities graphing linear functions graphing piecewise functions graphique graphs grass gravel gravel pile gravel pit gravitational potential gravity gravity equation graze grazing great circle great circles great pyramid greater greater than greatest greatest area greatest commo greatest common divisor greatest common factor greatest common factors greatest integer greatest number greatest value greeks grid groin vault grooming gross gross markup gross pay gross profit gross receipts gross sales ground speed group group activities group addends group of three numbers grouped data grouping groups groups of 3 growth growth factor growth of a tree growth rate gsm gst guard dog gues-and-check guess guess & check guess and check guess-and -check guess-and-check guppies gusee-and-check gutter guy-wire gymnast half half a circle half a percent half acre half an acre half an ellipse half life half lines half way half way between halfway mark hallway hamburger hamburgers hamiltonian hand hand movement hands hands of a clock handshakes hardest harmonic numbers harmonic sequence harmonic series harvest hat-check problem hatcheck problem hats hauteur hauteur d'un tetraedre irregulier having trouble with math hcd hcf hcl headboard heads heads and feet heads and legs heart shaped heart-shaped heat energy heat equation heavier heavy hectares height height above a chord height of a hill height of a isosceles trapezoid height of a parabolic arc height of a tree height of a triangle height of a truncated cone height of an equilateral triangle height of an isosceles triangle heights heinlein hemisphere hemispheric dome hemispherical bowl hen hendagon hendecagon henri leon lebesgue henrietta hens heptagon heptagons herd heron's formula herons formula heure heures heures de travel heures et minutes heures par jour hexadecagon hexadecimal hexagon hexagon angles hexagon area hexagon diameter hexagon inscribed in a circle hexagon inscribed in a disk hexagon width hexagonal hexagonal box hexagonal packing hexagonal prism hexagonal prism volume hexagonal pyramid hexagonal pyramid angles hexagonal pyramid volume hexagons hexahedron hexahedrons hexdecagon hexominos hidden higher derivatives highest common factor highest point hill hippasus hippocrates histogram histograms history history of mathematics history of trigonometry hits hiv hockey hockey 6 hockey players schedule hockey roster hockey schedule hogs hogsheads hole hole in 1 hole in one hole-in-one holes home homework grade homothetie hook's law hopper hopper volume horaire horizon horizontal horizontal a cylindrical tank horizontal bar horizontal barrel horizontal line horizontal tangent horizontal tank horse horse pen horse race horse races horsepower horses hose hotel hour glasses hour hand hourglass hourly rate hours house house floor plan house price how children learn how many cubic centimeters are in a cubic meter? how many oranges how many ways how to factor how to solve calculus hst human calculator human thought hundreds hundredths hydraulic cylinder hydrogen peroxide hydroplane hyperbola hyperbolae hyperbolas hyperbolic function hyperbolic functions hyperbolic geometry hyperbolic sine hyperbolic space hypercube hyperplane hypocycloid hypotenues hypotenuse hypothesis hypothesis test hypothesis testing i to the i i^i ice ice cream ice cream cone ice cube iceberg icosaedre icosahedra icosahedron icosahedrons identical identification identities identity identity property ieee illusion illusion géométrique imaginary imaginary exponent imaginary factors imaginary numbers imaginary power imaginary roots imaginary solutions impair impairs imperial imperial gallons imperial measurements imperial system implication implicit implicit differentiatiion implicit differentiation importance impossible impossible construction impossible equation impossible geometry impossible integrals impossible number impossible problem impossible schedule impossible triangle impossible word problem imprecise impressions on a roll improper improper fraction improper fractions improper integral in the universe inégaux inca incenter inch inches incidence incircle inclination incline incline angle incline plane included angle included numbers inclusion inclusive definition inclusive definitions income income percentages income tax inconsistantes inconsistent inconsistent equations incorrect incorrectly increase increases increasing incremental indefinite integral indefinitely independence independent independent events independent trials independent variable independent variables indeterminate form indeterminate forms index cards indices indirect indirect proof indirect variation indirectly individual induction inductive inductive reasoning inequalities inequality inertia infinite infinite area infinite geometric sequences infinite geometric series infinite powers infinite processes infinite sequence infinite series infinite set infinite sets infinitely many solutions infinitesimal infinities infinity inflation inflection point inflection points inflexion points inheritance initial value problem initial velocity injective inner tube inner walled compartment input output input output table input table input-output input-output table input/output table inradius inscribe inscribed inscribed angles inscribed ball inscribed circle inscribed circles inscribed cone inscribed cube inscribed hexagon inscribed hexagons inscribed in a circle inscribed in a quarter circle inscribed n-gon inscribed octagon inscribed pentagon inscribed polygon inscribed quadrilateral inscribed rectangle inscribed sphere inscribed square inscribed star inscribed triangle inscribing insee inside radius insulation insurance intérêt integer integer arithmetic integer coefficients integer equations integer multiples integer quation integers integrable integral integral of a sum integral of x! quilt quinary arithmetic quintic quintic function quintics quintillion quintillions quintuple quipu quiz grades quonset quonset style roof quota quotient quotient rule quotients réel résolution d'une équation rabbit rabbits race race track racers races racine racine carré racine carre racine carree raction radar station radians radians per second radiation radical radical equation radical expressions radical form radicals radicands radii radio tower radio waves radioactive decay radioactive waste radius radius of a circle radius of a sphere radius of an arc radius of convergence rafters railing railroad railroad embankment railway railway bridge railway cut rain rain barrel raindrops rainfall rainwater volume raised bed ramp ramsey's theorem random random digits random process random sample random sampling random variable randomness randy's age range range hood range hood angles range of a function range of a function defined piecewise ranges rank rankings rapport point rat sequence rate rate of cahnge rate of change rate of spread rate reduction rates ratio ratio and proportions ratio of ages ratio of gas to oil ratio test rational rational equation rational exponents rational expression rational expressions rational functional rational functions rational number rational numbers rational numbers between -2 and -3 rational root theorem rational roots rationalize rationalize the denominator rationalize the denominator roots rationalizing the denominator rationals rations rations fractions ratios ratios and proportions rats rays real real coefficients real estate real life real live real numbers real pay real roots real solutions real world real world mathematics real-estate real-life real-world realistic reals rearrange rearrangement rearrangements recipe problem reciprocal reciprocals reclaiming water recognization reconstruction rectagle area rectangle rectangle area rectangle area and perimeter rectangle dimensions rectangle inscribed in a circle rectangle length rectangle perimeter rectangle perimeter and area rectangle perimeter area rectangles rectangular rectangular acre rectangular base rectangular box rectangular drain rectangular enclosure rectangular field rectangular framework rectangular hyperbola rectangular hyperbolae rectangular hyperbolas rectangular octagon rectangular parallelepiped rectangular piece of land rectangular plot rectangular pool rectangular prism rectangular prisms rectangular pyramid rectangular room rectangular shaped property rectangular solid rectangular table rectangular tank rectangular warehouse rectilinear recurrence recurrence relation recurring decimal recursion recursive recursive formula recursively red riding hood reduce reduce variables reduced reduced price reduced row echelon form reducing variables reduction reel reference angles reflect reflected line segment reflection reflections reflex angles reflexive reflexivity refrigerator refrigerators region in 3 space regions regression regression line regression lines regroup regular regular hexagon regular hexagons regular n-gon regular n-side pyramid regular octagon regular octagon inscribed in a circle regular pentagon regular pentagonal pyramid regular polygon regular polygona regular polygons regular polyhedra regular polyhedron regular price regular quadrilateral regular shape regular shapes irregular shapes regular tetrahedron rejection region related rates relatif relation relations relationship relationships relative extrema relative maximum relative minimum relative speed relative velocities relatively prime relativity rem remainde remainder remainder theorem remainders remorque remote control boats rene descartes rent renting an electric cart repeated repeated addition repeated decimal repeated decimals repeating repeating 9 repeating decimal repeating decimals repeating digits repeating fractions repeating numbers repeating patterns repere repetend repetition repetitions replica reports research research question reservoir resize resizing resolution resolution d'une equation resolution of the equation resoudre resource resous resression restaurant reste restricted partitions resultant retail math retail price retaining wall retirement reuleaux reuleaux triangle revenue reverse reverse a formula reverse calculation reverse percentage reversing reversing a formula reversing the direction of an inequality revisiting golf 8 revolutions revolutions per minute revolutions per second revolving pairs rewriting formulas rextangle rhombi rhombicosidecahedron rhombique rhomboid rhombus rhombus diagonal rhombuses ribbons rice riddle riemann sums rifle right right angle right angle triangle right angled right angled triangle right angles right angles triangle right angles triangles right circular cone right circular cylinder right prism right trapezoid right triangle right triangles rigid rigid motions rim ring ringers rings area rise rise over run river river crossing road road grade roadway rock rock density rocket rodriguez and jones rods roi roles roll roll dice roll of material roll of paper rolle's theorem roller coaster rolling rolling circles rolling dice rolls roman numerals romeo roof roof angle roof area roof height roof slope roofs rook polynomials room room and board roosters root root 17 root 2 root 2 plus root 2 root 5 root 6 root of 2 root test root two root2 roots roots of a quadratic equation rope rope formed in a semicircle rope in a semicircle roses rotate rotating rotating groups of 3 rotating meetings rotating schedule rotation rotation schedule rotational energy rotational schedule rotations rouges roulette roulette wheel round round bar round down round hole round off error round pool round stock round table round tube round up rounded corners rounding rounding off rounding to hundredths routes row row echelon row echelon form row operations row reduction row sums rowing rows royal flush rpm rreal numbers rrectangle rrif rrsp rsa rtv's rubber mulch rubber sheet geometry rug area rule rule of 78 rule of descartes rule of seventy-eight rule of thumb ruler and compass rules rules for rules of division rules of exponents rules of logarithms rules of operation rules of precedence rumor run running running through a train tunnel runs runway ryder cup format safe safe cracker sagitta sailboat salary salary plus commission sale sale price sales sales tax salesman salt sample sample mean sample means sample size sample space sample sums sample variance samples sampling distribution sampling distributions san marino sand sand box sand in a cone sand pile sand volume sand weight sanding sandwich theorem sandwiches sang human sarnia satellite satellite dished satellite dishes satellites save combination saving money savings sawdust scalar scalar triple product scale scale drawing scale factor scale factors scale model scale volume scaled scalene scalene triangle scales scaling scaling factor schedule schedule 10 schedule 22 weeks schedule 5 schedule for 2 teams schedule for 2 teams of 10 schedule for 6 people schedule for 8 teams schedule for 9 teams schedule for a 6-person team schedules scheduling scheduling 10 scheduling curling scheme school bus schoolboys equation scientific notation scientific nottion scoops per cup score scramble sdivisibility by even se sea level sea sand search area searchlight seating seats seawater sec(2x) sec2x secant secants second degree equation second derivative second grade second grade word problem second order differential equations with constant coefficients secondes seconds sections sector sector area sector of a circle sector perimeter sectors securing security camera security code seed seeding rate seeds seeds per acre segment segment of a circle segments selecting a card selling selling price semester grade semi circle semi circular room semi ellipse semi logarithmique semi-circle semi-circles semi-ellipse semicircle semicircle area semicircle perimeter semicircles semicircular semicircular gutter semicircular room semiperimeter sentence separator septagons septante sequeces sequence sequence of fractions sequence puzzle sequence.integrals integrate integrating integrating factor integration integration by parts integration by substitution integrator intercept intercept form interception intercepts interest interest compounded daily interest compounded monthly interest rate interest rates interet interior angle interior angles interior angles of a polygon interior angles of a regular polygon intermediate value theorem intersect intersecting intersecting lines intersecting polygons intersection intersection of a line and a circle intersection of a plane and a cone intersection of conics intersection of two lines intersection of two planes intersection points intersections interval intervalle intervals introductory algebra intuition invalid argument invalid proof inventory inverse inverse function inverse functions inverse matrix inverse of a function inverse tangent inverse trig functions inverse variation inversely inversely proportional inverses inverses of functions inversion inversions invert invert and multiply inverted bowl invertible invertible matrix inverting digits inverting fractions inverting functions invest investing investment investments invoice iphone irrational irrational functions irrational number irrational numbers irrationals irrationals numbers irrationnel irrationnelles irregular irregular area irregular hexagon irregular hexagon area irregular lot irregular octagon irregular pentagon irregular pentagon area irregular polygon irregular quadrilateral irregular region irregular shape irregular shaped objects irregular tetrahedron irregular tetrahedron volume irrigation irrigation ditch is a rectangle a rhombus is a rectangle a square? next term sequencee sequences sequential probability ratio test seret number serie series sesame street set set membership set notation set theory sets setting up a pool setting up equations seven seven cards seven circles seven digits seven puzzle seven switches sevens sewing sex shadow shadow length shadows shaking hands shape shape name shape names shape of a triangle shape-preserving transformations shapes shares sharing shed roof sheep sheet metal sheet metal cone shelf shell method shift shingles ship ship builder shipping shipping charges shipping costs ships shirts shoot the moon shopping short form shortcuts shortest shortest chord shortest distance shortest distance from a point to a line show your work shuffle shuffling shutter length si side side length side lengths sides sides given sides lengths sides of a circle sides of a polygon sides of a triangle sierpinski pyramid sierpinski triangle sieve of eratosthenes sieves sigma sigma notation sign sign size significant digits significant figures silo silo capacity silo diameter silo volume silver silver pyramid similar similar cones similar rectangles similar triangles similar volumes similarity simlar triangles simple simple experiment simple interest simplest form simplex method simplification simplifing simplify simplifying simplifying algebraic expressions simplifying expressions simplifying fractions simplifying radicals simplifying roots simson line simulate simulation simultaneous simultaneous equation simultaneous equations simultaneous equations with fractions simultaneous fractional equations simultaneous inequalities simultaneous linear equations sin sin 4a sin x = cos x sin(θ)/θ sin(3a) sin(3x) sin(x) = cos(x) sin(x)/x sin3x = cos2x sin^-1 sine sine function sine inverse sine substitution sinh sinusoidal motion sinx = cosx sit sit ups situps sivads six six digit code six digit number six digit numbers six digits six letter words six nines six people in three groups six person team six sides six team league six team schedule six team track schedule six teams six typists six-digit number six-digit numbers six-digit passwords six-letter words sixfold sixth degree sixth degree equation size size lot size of a triangle skateboard skeeball sketch sketching sketchpad skewness ski lift ski slope ski trip skid marks skill testing question skip slab slabs slant slant angles slant edge slant height slanted roof sleeve slice slice of pie slicing slicing cubes slicing through a cone slope slope in real life slope intercept slope intercept form slope of a line slope of a tangent slope-intercept form sloped ceiling sloped hole sloped region sloped yard slopes slump cone smaller smallest smallest number smallest polygon smith smokestack smoking smooth snail snails snake eyes snakes snow snowball soccer soccer ball soccer field soccer scores social golfer problem social security social security number social security numbers social security numbers (us) socket wrenches socks sod sofa soffit soft drink softball softball team soh cah toa soil soil sample soixante-dix solar system soldiers solid solid angle solid figure solid figures solid geometry solid mensturation solid mensuration solides solides darchimède solidus solitaire solution solutions solve solve an inequality solve for a solve for n solve for t solve for theta solve for x solve for y solve for z solve the equation solving solving a quadratic solving a triangle solving an equation solving by graphing solving equation solving equations solving inequalities solving linear equations solving linear system solving quadratics solving triangles somme son sound intensity soup kettle soustraction soustractions south spa space space travel spaces spaceship spacing spades span speaker schedule specific specific gravity specific heat speed speed of light speeds spelling of geometrical terms sphère sphere sphere surface area sphere volume spheres spherical spherical ball spherical bowl spherical container spherical geometry spices spill spindles spinner spinners spiral spiral of archimedes spiral tube spirograph split peas splitting splitting unequally sponge sports sports games sports schedule spotlight spots spray area sprt sq. sqrt sqrt 2 sqrt(2) sqrt square square acre square and rhombus square area square based box square based pyramid square box square centimeters square feet square foot square footage square frame square free square garden square in a circle square inches square inscribed in a circle square inside a circle inside a square square meter square meters square metre square metres square miles square mm to square cm square numbers square of a negative number square of an odd number square patio square peg square pen square prism square prisms square pyramid square root square root algorithm square root of -1 square root of 2 square root of 3 square root of 5 square root of 6 square root of four square root of i square root of six square root of two square root procedure square roots square roots of fractions square tiles square units square yards square-based pyramid square-based pyramid area squared squarefree squares squares and rectangles squares inscribed in a circle squares numbers squares of negative numbers squaring squaring the circle squarre squash squash schedule squencce squre centimeters st ives stéradians stadium height stained glass lamp stained glass window staircase stairs stamps standard standard angles standard deviation standard error of estimation standard error of the mean standard form standard normal standard normal distribution standard normal probability stanley cup staplers star star of bethlehem star-multiplication star-multiply staris stastics static statics statistical deception statistical difference statistical significance statistics statistique statue stbstitution stdev steady state steaming steamroller steel steel beam steel block steel mesh steel plate steepness stella stella octangula stem and leaf stem and leaf plot stem-and-leaf plot stem-leaf stem-leaf plot step function step pyramid steps stewart's theorem stitches stock stock broker stock on a roll stone stone dust stone walkway stonedust stopping distance storage bin storage charges story problem storyteller stp straight edge straight edge and compass straight line straight lines strange strange events strategy games straws stream street lamp street light streetlamp streetlight strength stretching strict partitions string string around three circles strings strings of characters strip of land ststistics students studies studs study styles styrofoam cup sub sets subdivide subgraph subitize subitizing subject submarine subscripted numbers subscripts subset subsets substitute substitution substitution method subtends subtotal subtracting subtracting fractions subtracting like quantities subtracting polynomials subtraction subtraction in base 14 subtraction in base 8 subtraction in base fourteen subtraction in other bases subtrahend success successive successive differences successive differentiation sugar cane crop sugar cubes sugar glider suites sulfuric acid sum sum and difference sum and difference of two numbers sum of an arithmetic series sum of consecutive integers sum of cubes sum of digits sum of fractions sum of integer cobes sum of repeating decimals sum of squares sum of the angles sum of the angles of a triangle sum of the digits sum of the roots sum rule sum to 360 summation sums sun sundial sunflower seeds sunflowers sunrise sunshine sup superimposing images supplement supplementary supplementary angles supremum surd surds surface surface area surface area of a cap surface area of a cone surface area of a cut pipe surface area of a cylinder surface area of a dome surface area of a hemisphere surface area of a pyramid surface area of a sphere surface area of a triangular prism surface of a solid surface of the earth surfaces surjective survey survey responses surveyor's formula surveyors formula surveys suspension suspension bridge suspension bridges suspension cables sw swaying sweater sweep angle of a camera swimmers swimming pool swimming pools swing switches swquence sylvester's problem sylvester's theorem symbol symbols symmetric symmetric primes symmetries symmetry synthetic division système système à deux équations système d'équations system system international system of equations system of inequalities system of linear equations systematic counting systeme d'equations systems of equations systems of linear equations t-distribution t-distributions t-numbers t-scores t-sums t-test t-totals t.c.For highway tractor-trailers and intercity buses, this results in about a 10% increase in fuel consumption from drag when compared to the reference temperature, further emphasizing the importance of aerodynamic drag reduction strategies for the Canadian climate.
The results of one study indicated that an LCV’s drag coefficient while pulling two trailers can be as little as 0.05 higher than a conventional vehicle pulling one trailer at 0 deg wind yaw angle.A study concluded that the percentage contribution of pressure drag on the baseline vehicle was 93.3% whereas the contribution of pressure drag on the LCV was 91.7%.